open source researcher, visual investigator

Investigating a massacre: The Afrin hospital attack one year on 

Visual Investigation produced for

A year on from a devastating assault on the main hospital in the Syrian city of Afrin, a new Airwars visual investigation has pieced together key features of the attack. At least 19 people were reportedly killed in two strikes on the Al-Shifa hospital on June 12th, 2021 in what was the single deadliest incident tracked by Airwars in Syria during 2021.

Hospital attacks in Syria are sadly common, with both the Syrian government and allied Russian forces striking dozens of them since the civil war began in 2011. The US-led Coalition against the so-called Islamic State, Turkey and Kurdish groups have also all been accused of targeting medical facilities. But the Al-Shifa hospital strike was unusual in that the survivors didn’t all identify the same culprit. Some accused the Syrian regime, others the Russians, while others still blamed the US-backed Syrian Democratic Forces or allied Kurdish militias. Some even claimed Turkey was responsible for an attack in a city under its influence.

By bringing together satellite imagery, CCTV footage, witness testimony and expert analysis, Airwars created a comprehensive visual assessment of the strike. We were seeking to understand what munition was used and where the rocket was fired from. see full article here

Anatomy of a Russian cluster munition strike 

Visual Investigation produced for

During Russia’s ongoing invasion of Ukraine, its use of cluster munitions has been widely documented. More than 100 countries have signed a UN convention banning their use, though Russia, Ukraine and the United States are among the nations yet to sign up. Such weapons are often described as indiscriminate. However on the ground, evidence of exactly how widespread their effects are can be are often hard to document. Yet a recent strike on the snow-covered grounds of a Ukraine hospital presented strong visual documentation.

Using uniquely placed, open-source videos, Airwars created a 3D model of all recorded damage locations when a cluster bomb hit the children’s hospital and a blood donation centre in the Ukrainian city of Kharkiv. One civilian was reportedly killed while waiting in line with his family to give blood, while hundreds of sick children took refuge in the hospital’s bomb shelters. see full article here

Semiologies of Extremification

exhibited at
MA Research Architecture Show/
Psychosocial Cartographies Conference, Prague


Semiologies of Extremification lays out a cartography of far-right extremification, topologically arranging the heterogeneous interplays that lead to the production of far-right content and subjects. The project departs from an understanding of the far-right as a regime of signs and takes a semiotic approach in its investigation; placing attention on the modes, means and machinics of far-right discourse.

Its theoretical framework expands the definition of language in Lacanian psychoanalytic theory, to encompass the affects of asignifying intensities and non-human cognitions in the subjectification process. Borrowing and disrupting Lacanian schematics in its diagrammatic approach, Semiologies of Extremification seeks to explicate the cyclical and exacerbating processes that contrive far-right subjectification, in turn inscribing a map for anti-fascist intervention.

Encoded Revolt

exhibited at
The Imperial War Museum/
The Design Museum


This particular interation of Encoded Revolt was performed at the opening of The Imperial War Museum’s Syria: A Conflict Explored series. The piece of music encodes the date, coordinates, belligerent responsible and reported casualty data of an airstrike occuring in Idlib, Syria on the morning of the event.
Encoded Revolt consists of an an ongoing series of works, that I first began developing in 2017. These works, performed and exhibited at The Imperial War Museum and The Design Museum, encode the coordinates and surrounding data of airstrikes in the Syrian conflict within music notation; acting as a new form of embedded political activism.

A sense of urgency to protect the contested data of airstrikes led me to experiment with translating digital languages into analogue forms as a means of preservation. This culminated in the development of a methodology converging the widely used computer code hexadecimal with the musical systems of Serialism. Pioneered by composers Arnold Schoenberg and Oliver Messiaen, Serialism is a compositional movement which uses ordered series of musical elements to systematically produce music that is atonal and unified. To encode the airstrike data I adapted Schoenberg’s 12 tone series and Messiaen’s 24 duration series for the base 16 code hexadecimal. With every hexadecimal digit denoted by both a tone and a duration, with the incorporation of Serialist compositional techniques, digital data could be performed, preserved and progressively ciphered in music.

Cellist: Milan Tarascas