Airwars X The Independent
“The Secret Talks that Nearly Saved Gaddafi”
The Independent article link
19/03/2021 - front page of The Independent
“Two months had passed since Libyans first took to the streets. Hundreds were dead as government forces and Nato-backed rebels fought a brutal conflict, but in a hotel room 2,000 miles away the warring sides agreed a secret deal to end the war.
The confidential Norwegian-brokered talks – full details of which are being revealed exclusively by The Independent on the tenth anniversary of the Nato bombing campaign – were the closest the world came to a peaceful end to Libya’s 2011 civil war.
The two sides agreed to a draft text stating that Muammar Gaddafi, who had ruled Libya for 42 years, would step down and leave politics, but keep the institutions of state in place. In the end the talks fell apart and rebels, with Nato’s support, ultimately captured and killed Gaddafi. More than 1,000 civilians were killed during the war, according to new research by the civilian casualty monitor Airwars. ...”
- source: The Independent
All belligerents Libya 2011 webiste
“Spurred on by protests across the Arab world, in February 2011 Libyans took to the streets against long-time dictator Muammar Gaddafi. Rebels quickly seized key cities but Gaddafi forces cracked down, killing hundreds, and were closing in on Benghazi – the last bastion of the uprising. On March 17th the UN Security Council voted to take “all necessary measures” to protect civilians. NATO then began an air campaign against Gaddafi’s forces, carrying out 7,000 bombing sorties over eight months which tipped the war’s balance. Rebels seized the capital Tripoli in August, with the war ending on October 20th when Gaddafi was captured and killed by rebels in his home city Sirte.
Claims of civilian harm from all parties to Libya’s 2011 war can be accessed either via our interactive mapping and timeline below, or the ‘Civilian Casualties’ tab above. Please note the uprising tally was likely significantly higher than this study indicates. In 2011, local social media use was limited in Libya and there was little independent local media. A significant number of local reports of civilian harm made online at the time may also have since been lost. Many small scale ground actions are additionally not reflected in the database – though they constituted a key element of the toll. Comprehensive Airwars data on civilian harm in Libya from 2012 to the present day can be found here.”
- source: Airwars website
Forensic Architecture X Bellingcat
POLICE BRUTALITY AT THE BLACK LIVES MATTER PROTESTS
Geolocation + Verification
“The ‘Black Lives Matter’ protests that have swept the US since May 2020, in the wake of the killings of George Floyd, Breonna Taylor, and other Black Americans, constitute one of the largest uprisings against systemic racism in policing in the US in a generation.
But this popular movement has itself been met with widespread and egregious police brutality. And more than ever before, evidence of that violence has been captured in videos and images.
Together with Bellingcat, FA has geolocated and verified over a thousand incidents of police violence, analysed them according to multiple categories, and presented the resulting data in an interactive cartographic platform.
Out of the data emerges a picture of officers and departments engaging in widespread and systemic violence toward civilian protesters, journalists, medics, and legal observers.
That violence has entailed continuous and grievous breaches of codes of conduct, the dangerous use of so-called ‘less-lethal’ munitions, reckless deployment of toxic chemical agents, and persistent disregard for constitutional and humanitarian norms.”
- source: FA website